FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization) estimates that about three-quarters of the genetic agricultural materials have been lost over the last century, while approximately 1,350 animal species is in danger of disappearing or have already disappeared. Plant and animal species are not the only ones endangered thing, the entire planet (lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere) is in a very critical situation. Therefore, environmental treatment is necessary and urgent worldwide.
Environmental protection includes a set of different procedures and measures to prevent environmental degradation in order to preserve biological balance. Environmental treatment is a multidiscipline and should be a continuing obligation of the whole society. A healthy environment is the foundation for the preservation of human existence, the healthy development of society and an important factor for the level of life.
The objectives of the environmental treatment systems are:
- Preservation and protection of human health, integrity, diversity and quality of ecosystems
- The preservation and enrichment of genetic resources of animal and plant species
- Soil fertility
- Conservation of natural beauty
- Providing conditions for the sustainable management of nature
- The preservation of ecological stability, as well as the quantity and quality of natural resources
- Prevention of hazards and risks to the environment
Environmental treatment systems find plausible environmental solutions in various fields, such as wastewater problems, implementing laws relating to environmental protection, dissolved air flotation (DAF), biological treatment and others. Also, environmental treatment involves air pollution control, recycling, wastewater management and waste disposal, filtration systems, environmental sustainability, radiation protection and industrial hygiene. All these treatments are in accordance with the principles of sustainable development and preservation of natural resources. Let’s see some of the most relevant treatments:
- Dissolved air flotation (DAF) – It is effective physical / chemical technology for treating a variety of municipal or industrial processes and wastewater streams. DAF treatment systems are commonly used to remove suspended solids (TSS), oils and greases from the wastewater streams.
- Wastewater environmental treatment systems – These systems require ancillary components and subsystems to properly function, such as flocculation tubes, tank mixing subsystems; pH control, equalization and screening equipments and systems.
- Biological treatment – It includes several forms of treatment: anaerobic treatment (for high strength wastewater), aerobic treatment (provides direct sewer discharge), biological treatment for sludge reduction and treatment for energy (biogas) production.
- Air pollution management and treatment – Air pollution dispersion model evaluates the concentration of a pollutant or overall air quality from industrial flue gas stack emissions and vehicle exhausts. It is the inevitable precursor of all air pollution treatments. There are several methods to control industrial air pollution: biofiltration, bioscrubbing, gas scrubbing (physical or chemical), carbon filtration and combustion.
Environmental pollution is the introduction of pollutants or energy into the environment caused by human activity or natural processes. The pollutants can be solid, liquid or gaseous. The main causes of air pollution are: transportation, production of electricity, industry, agriculture and forest fires. Therefore, every country in the world must have developed environmental treatment systems to reduce these pollutions and to create a healthy environment.